Carville-by-the-Sea in 10 Slides

San Francisco's bygone bohemian community made of recycled transit cars at Ocean Beach.

Transit cars on sand dunes
Carville-by-the-Sea around 1900. Kooky, isn't it? This is roughly 47th Avenue and Kirkham Street today.

Video? Yes, video! Or you can keep scrolling and read like people did in caveman days.

In less than 7 minutes and just 10 slides, Woody shares the story of Carville-by-the-Sea

This San Francisco Story is how a unique community sprouted out of the sand dunes of Ocean Beach in the 1890s, the fin de siècle, where bohemians used old transit cars as clubhouses, restaurants, and rendezvous of assignation. In just ten slides, this is the San Francisco Story of Carville-by-the-Sea.

(It's one of my favorites. Don't believe me? I wrote a book about it!)

Horsecar on street
South Van Ness Avenue near 25th Street, 1886. (OpenSFHistory/wnp26.1094)

Number 1: Early public transportation in San Francisco was animal dependent. Real horse power! Horse car lines, in which the animals pulled little coaches on rails, spider-webbed out from the core of the city. Above is an example on South Van Ness Avenue near 25th Street in 1886. (By the way, the house on the right with the red arrow pointing at it? That's the landmark Frank M. Stone house, still standing at 1348 South Van Ness. Check it out sometime.)

When these horse car lines began being replaced by more efficient electric streetcars in the 1890s, the transit companies faced a dilemma: what to do with the obsolete cars?

newspaper ad
February 12, 1895 ad by Market Street Railway

Number 2: Take out an ad in the paper! In 1895, the Market Street Railway offered car bodies with seats for $20 and without for $10, to be used for... well you can read in the ad above some of the ideas. It’s a credit to the company’s imagination that the old horse cars were employed for just about all of those uses.

Streetcar houses on sand
Carville block in 1890s, today's 48th Avenue and Lincoln Way. (San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library. Colorized by me.)

Number 3: Adolph Sutro purchased a handful of cars and offered them for rent on one of his blocks in the cold foggy sand dunes facing Ocean Beach just south of Golden Gate Park. Sutro planned his seaside property to be a new French Riviera, but since he hadn’t invested in any water lines, gas lines, sewage, sidewalks, or indeed any infrastructure whatsoever, the short-term plan was to make some income off the land, even if it was just $5 a month in rent from an old horse car.

The #1 car above was named “La Boheme” by the musicians who used it as a clubhouse and watering hole after their downtown theater shifts. They facetiously called the sand hill behind the car “Mount Diablo.”

Women with bicycles in front of streetcar house
Falcons Bicycle Club car-house. (Collection of Paul Melzer.)

Number 4: A neighboring car was claimed by a club of seven women bicyclists and their admirers. Bicycling was all the rage in the 1890s and after long rides through Golden Gate Park, the “Lady Falcons” used their highly-decorated car for naps and elaborate dinner parties.

Streetcar houses and water tank
Jacob Heyman rental properties, water tank, and real estate office at Ocean Beach. (Willard E. Worden photograph colorized by me, "Car Town on the Beach, S.F., 1901" Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.)

Number 5: A block south of Sutro’s property, real estate man Jacob Heyman had tried unsuccessfully to sell in the sand dunes until he decided to go along with Sutro’s strategy. Rather than be restricted to renting, Heyman purchased a couple dozen old horse cars and offered to throw them in as instant housing to anyone who purchased a lot. He built creative rental properties to illustrate possibilities and, most importantly, he tapped the aquifer for groundwater, making full-time living at the beach viable.

Old horsecars on sand
Jacob Heyman's property at roughly 47th Avenue and Kirkham Street, circa 1900. Transit cars awaiting buyers.

Number 6: Here are Heyman’s cars awaiting potential buyers and some of the rentals going up in the background. By the way, all this colorization of old photos was done by me to give my book a old-postcard vibe. Don’t take it for reality!

Transit cars made into houses
Creative car-homes along Great Highway between Irving and Judah Streets in the early 1900s. (Randolph Brandt Collection. Courtesy of Emiliano Echeverria and colorized by me.)

Number 7: The creative carpenters responded to Heyman’s temptations and pumped-up water. Carville grew quickly with private homes, bars, eateries, bed-and-breakfast inns, and raucous clubhouses. It became a fashionably shabby, quirky colony of some 200 cars by 1900, drawing bohemians and the wealthy playing bohemian, school teachers on a budget, and rakes looking for a hideaway to carry on quiet affairs.

Painting and portraits of artists.
"My Muse," the painting of Maisie Griswold by Xavier Martinez is courtesy of Art Penniman.

Number 8: Drinking? Affairs? Night-time skinny-dipping in the surf? Sounds like a place artists would be drawn to and they were. Visitors and part-time residents of Carville included the writer Jack London, poet George Sterling, humorist Gelett Burgess, the journalist Maisie Griswold, and the artist Xavier Martinez, who rented a car as a studio. (Griswold is the subject of the background painting above, done by Martinez.)

Old streetcar houses
1208 48th Avenue in 1925. (Jesse B. Cook Collection. Courtesy of the Bancroft Library, University of Califonia, Berkeley. Colorized by me.)

Number 9: After the 1906 earthquake and fire, an exodus of people from the burned-out core of the city moved west and constructed conventional houses at the beach. Sidewalks and sewage lines replaced the open dunes and a real neighborhood developed as Carville transformed into the Outer Sunset District. Most of the artists bailed for Carmel and other colonies, and by the 1920s, car houses were demolished, relegated to backyard sheds, or hung on as decaying rental properties.

Room made with old transit cars.
Interior of the last (?) Carville house.

Number 10: Is it all gone? There’s at least one Carville building still standing on the Great Highway, made of three cars artfully combined on a second story. Check out the photo above. That's two cars smooshed together to make one great living room. Perhaps there are more Carville homes hidden away? Let me know if you find one!

These ten images just scratch the surface of the San Francisco Story of Carville-by-the-Sea. Want to read more? Get the digital version of my book, which includes a new afterword and some great bonus photographs and artwork done by friends and fans:

Carville-by-the-Sea: San Francisco's Streetcar Suburb (2022 Digital Version)

Available in EPUB and PDF format for $9.99

Get Carville-by-the-Sea Now!